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production of Mineral resources in india mppsc upsc notes

In India natural resources production of mineral resources in India contributes a major role in economic growth & development.
According to the Ministry of Mines annual report 2022-23, in the total production of minerals orissa has the highest share of production value which is 41 percent, followed by Chattisgarh - 17.34%, Rajasthan -14.10%, Karnataka -13.24% and Jharkhand- 4.36% of  the total value mineral production
India ranks second in production of minerals in the world.

what are mineral resources

mineral resources are naturally occuring substances found in earths crust, extracted for various purposes and uses like construction, energy, technological and important economic wealth of nation. mineral resources examples are iron, aluminium, coal, mica, and graphite.

Distribution of minerals in India region-wise

  • Northeastern Peninsular belt
  • central belt
  • southern belt
  • southwestern belt
  • northwestern belt
  • the Indian Ocean belt
mineral resources in India mppsc notes


1. North Eastern peninsular belt

stretched in 3 states Jharkhand, Odisha, and West Bengal
richest mineral belt known as the Iron and Steel Belt of India
Chhota Nagpur plateau is the 'heartland of India' located in the northeastern peninsular belt
minerals - kyanite 100% reserves, iron 93%, coal 84% chromite and mica 70 and limestone and manganese

2. Central belt

Stretches over Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Andra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Telangana
minerals- Bauxite, manganese, limestone marble, mica, Gems, Graphite, 

3. Southern Belt

Stretches- Karnataka plateau and Tamilnadu upland
lignite is found in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu
ferrous minerals found - Gold, iron ore, chromite, manganese, bauxite, 
second largest

4. southwestern belt

Goa, Karnataka, and Kerala.
minerals- iron ore, copper, bauxite, manganese, granite, and clay
Goa located in this belt, is the producer of iron ore

5. Northwestern belt

The belt extends over Aravali in Rajasthan and Gujarat, minerals associated with the Dharwad region
Non-ferrous metals like copper, lead, zinc, mica, manganese, and steatite, are found
Rajasthan has huge deposits of - building stones like sandstone, Granite, marble, gypsum, and Fullers

6. Indian Ocean Belt

petroleum and natural gas in offshore areas.
phosphate nodules near Andaman islands
barium nodules and barium nodules

classification of minerals found in India

there are different types of mineral resources in India these are 

metallic

Ferrous Iron and manganese
non ferrous - copper and bauxite.

Non-metallic 

Fuel - coal, petroleum 
others mica and limestone

Atomic - 

Uranium, Thorium, limenite, and beryllium.

Major metallic minerals in India and the production of minerals

metallic minerals are sources of metals, Iron ores, copper, and Gold producing ores are included in this category, There is a huge contribution of natural resources in India as metallic minerals in India are the richest in wealth of minerals produced in several regions.

Ferrous minerals

iron ore manganese, chromite used in metallurgical industries

Iron ore 

The backbone of industrial development provides raw materials for iron and steel industry
extracted from Dharwad and Cudappa rocks

Type of iron ore based on iron content
magnetite is 72% used in electronic industries
hematite 60 - 70 % used in iron and steel industries
limonite 40 - 60 % used in pigments for paints
siderite 40 - 50 % source of manganese

Iron ore production state-wise production mining ranking
  • Orissa 53.82%
  • chatitisgarh - 16.27%
  • Karnataka - 15.88%
  • Jharkhand - 9.74%

iron ore regions and mines
  • Odisha - Barabil Koira Valley India richest hematite deposits, other- Sundargarh, Mayurbhanj, Cuttack, Sambalpur, Keonjhar, and Koraput district
  • chattisgarh- bailadia(duntewara)
  • Jharkhand- Singhbhum,  
  • Karnataka - Kudremukh, Bellary
  • Andhra Pradesh - Veldurthi, Guntur region

manganese

found in combination with iron to produce steel known as ferromanganese
sedimentary rocks of the Dharwad system
ores of manganese
  1. psilomelane 
  2. braunite
  3. manganite
  4. Hausmannite

The main regions of manganese produce are 
Keonjhar and Mayurbhanj in Orissa,
Balaghat and chindwara in Madhya Pradesh
Nagpur, Ratnagiri and Bhandara in Maharashtra
Singhbhum in Jharkhand

Leading manganese producer states in India
  1. Madhya Pradesh 31.50%
  2. Maharashtra 27.14%
  3. Orissa 19.01%

Nickel

Hard malleable highly tensile elastic and resistant to abrasion
used in automobile aircraft, ornaments
produced in the Orissa Cuttack and Mayurbhanj districts

Non-ferrous minerals in India

production of non-ferrous minerals in India and their contribution and state wise production of minerals in India.

copper 

found in igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic, good conductor of electricity
used in the electrical industry for making wires, also mixed with gold in jewelry
alloy copper and zinc-brass
copper+ tin known as bronze

copper ore reserves and production 
highest reserves of copper are in - Rajasthan Jharkhand Madhya Pradesh 
highest production in Madhya Pradesh (56.83%) and Rajasthan (43.17%)

Madhya Pradesh is the largest producer of copper and the maximum production is done by Hindustan Copper Limited.

Bauxite

the primary ore of aluminum 
Bauxite reserves and production in India
largest reserves of bauxite
  • Odisha
  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Gujarat
  • Jharkhand
  • Maharashtra
Production of bauxite state-wise
  1. Orissa 
  2. Gujarat
  3. Jharkhand
  4. Chattisgarh
  5. Madhya Pradesh
Bauxite Producing Regions
Ranchi and Palamu in Jharkhand
Kheda in Gujarat
Shahdol and Balaghat in Madhya Pradesh
Durg and Sarguja in Chattisgarh
Belgaum and bababudhan hills in karnataka
Kolhapur thane in Maharashtra
palni javadi and shevaroy hills in  Tamil nadu

Silver 

It occurs as sulfide 
largest producer of silver is Zawar Mine in Rajasthan
during refining in Kolar gold fields and Hutti gold mines in Karnataka
Hindustan Zinc Limited located in Udaipur Rajasthan and Hindustan Copper Limited in Singhbum Jharkhand are the first and second largest producers of silver

Silver Reserves state-wise top position
  1. Rajasthan has Highest reserves of silver
  2. Karnataka

Chromite

oxide of iron and chromium
used in refractive works, metallurgical, and chemical industries
Keonjhar and Cuttack are the main regions of chromite production
Orissa is the largest producer of chromite.

chromite reserves 
  • Orissa 
  • Jharkhand
  • Chattisgarh
production 
Orissa has the highest production of chromite in India.

Gold 

precious metal used in jewelry manufacturing and also in dentistry
found in metamorphic and igneous rocks
producing regions of Gold
Kolar Gold Mines and Hutti Gold Mines Karnataka about 98%
Ramgiri Gold Field in Andhra Pradesh

Gold refinery - Sohna Haryana
Shirpur Gold Refinery is India's first and Asia's largest Gold refinery located headquarter at Mumbai Maharashtra

Tin

cassiterite is the primary ore of Tin
Bastar in Chattishgarh is the only producer region of India.

Lead and zinc 

lead extracted from ore called Galena mostly found in silver and zinc
non-conductor of electricity
primary use of lead is in the iron and steel industry, in cable cover, lead sheeting, and glass-making
lead mines 
Zawar in Rajasthan, Rajpura Dariba in Rajasthan

zinc is also associated with lead and silver extracted from zinc sulfide, calamine, zincite, willemite, and Hemimorphite.
manufacturing galvanized steel, to make it rusting resisted.
zinc mine- Zawar Rajasthan

Top state deposits of lead and zinc found 
Lead deposits found in Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, and Gujarat
zinc deposits - Rajasthan, Maharashtra, and Madhya Pradesh
 
mica mineral  
india is leading producer of mica contributes to 60 percent 
mainly occurs in andhra pradesh jharkhand 
it is used in electric appliances

for state wise mineral resources scenerio in India visit the official website of govt. of india mineral scenerio
 

other facts for exam

  • national mineral development corporation (NMDC) was formed in the year 1958

why do we need to conserve mineral resources in India.

mineral resources are wealth to any country and they are available in limited amount.there are certain reasons why do we need to conserve mineral resources
  • Sustainable Development: Mineral resources are finite and non-renewable.
  • Economic Stability: Minerals are essential for various industries, including construction, manufacturing, and technology.
  •  Environmental Protection: Mining activities can lead to environmental degradation, including deforestation, soil erosion, water pollution, and loss of biodiversity. 
  •  Energy Conservation: The extraction and processing of minerals consume significant amounts of energy.
  •  Technological Advancements: Conservation efforts can spur innovation in mining and mineral processing technologies. 
  • Employment and Community Welfare: Mining regions often face socioeconomic challenges. conserving minerals leads to generation of employment.
  • Strategic and Security Considerations: Certain minerals are critical for national security and technological advancements.
  •  Sustainable Development: Aligns with global sustainable development goals, balancing economic growth with environmental stewardship.

By reducing energy conservation through conventional sources we can conserve mineral resources in india.

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