energy resources in india conventional and non conventional mppsc

energy can be classified into categories based on resources it can be obtained or energy that affects the environment and other conditions.

here are important notes on conventional and non-conventional energy resources for MPPSC, and UPSC exams for prelims and mains exam

conventional and non-conventional energy resources

Conventional energy resources meaning

These are traditional sources of energy and are available in limited quantities. These are also known as nonrenewable energy resources, and create environmental pollution due to carbon content released on burning.

example, Coal, petroleum, gas, and hydropower greater than 25megawatt

Non-conventional energy resources mean

These are mostly renewable sources of energy that are limitless in production and can be produced without harming the environment, do not create pollution. and are Green energy.

example- all renewable like hydroelectric, wind, solar, tidal, ocean wave, geothermal, OTEC, biomass, biogas, biodiesel, biodiesel,

and atomic energy (non-renewable also added in this category).

conventional and non conventional energy resources

Conventional energy sources

India is a huge consumer and producer of conventional energy sources or non-renewable energy resources. The conventional energy sources are- 


It is a fossil fuel, that contains carbon, hydrogen, volatile matter and moisture, and ash content

classification of coal based on carbon content

  1. Anthracite (80-95% carbon)
  2. bituminous(55-65%) used in industries making coke
  3. lignite(45-55%)
  4. peat(35 -40%)

India is the second-largest producer

Based on origin classified as 

Gondwana (98% coal produced from gondwana region). found in MP, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Orissa etc. and 

tertiary (only 2% production) found in regions - Assam, Jammu Kashmir,

Highest coal reserves in India state-wise

  • Odisha
  • Chattisgarh
  • Jharkhand
  • West Bengal
  • Madhya Pradesh

highest coal-producing states are 

  • Chattisgarh
  • Odisha
  • Madhya Pradesh
  • Jharkhand
  • Telangana

important coal mines 

jharia, Bokaro, giridh,karanpura, Ramgarh in Jharkhand

tatapani, Ramkola in chattisgarh

Talcher in Orissa

singareni in andra pradesh

Coal Bed methane is similar to natural gas, having good calorific value, like sour gas lacks hydrogen mainly composed of methane, nitrogen, CO2

policy in 1997


found in sedimentary rocks

leading producing regions of petroleum in India are 

  • coastal region 
  • Rajasthan
  • Gujarat 
  • Assam

Natural gas-producing regions

  • coastal regions
  • Assam
  • Tripura
  • Rajasthan 
  • Gujarat
  • Tamil Nadu

Gujarat largest producer of crude oil and natural gas

oil refineries in mp Bina(BPCL) in 2009

oil sedimentary basins operational



krishna godavari basin


kutch offshore


Sagar Samridhi Project 2003 for deep water exploration on East and west coasts

International Energy Agency - 1974 HQ- Paris

India is fourth largest producer of liquified natural gas

Thermal energy

by using fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, and natural gas

9 ultra mega power projects produce energy of about 4000MW - Sasan Umpp in MP, Mundra in Gujarat, krishnapatnam in Andra Pradesh, UMPP in Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, and Karnataka

Read- green energy corridor and deendayal upadhyay gram jyoti yojana

Nuclear energy 

source of clean energy produced by nuclear fission using heavy atom like uranium, thorium, and plutonium

The Atomic Energy Commission was formed in 1948 and the department in 1954 by the efforts of dr. Homi Jahangir Bhabha

first atomic research reactor Apsara in Troumbay Mumbai

first nuclear power reactor Jarapur 1969

Total installed 6780 MW capacity

India 6th rank in the world

uranium is found in Jharkhand, Meghalaya, Rajasthan

Hydel power

Its is renewable source of energy

potential is 148 giga watt India is 7th largest producer

first hydroelectricity power plant 1902 in shivasamudram karnataka

proposed - lower subanshri arunachal worlds biggest hydroelctric plant 2000mw

Read all hydroelectric power projects in India

power sector total installed capacity in India

state sector 

central sector 

private sector

Types of electric plants capacity(MW) Share(%)

Thermal electricity 237929 MW - 56.4%

(coal-based, lignite, gas-based, oil-based)

Hydroelectricity 46850 - 11.1%

Nuclear based 7480 MW - 1.8%

Renewable energy source 129643 - 30.7%

Total capacity 421902 MW

installed capacity of Renewable and non-renewable energy resources

Non-conventional energy resources

Also known as Renewable sources of energy, These are available in abundant 

In Renewable energy production, India stands fourth in the world


Potential 7,48,990 MW

Asia's Largest solar thermal electric plant set in Nagpur MH

solar pond - Bhuj Kutch Gujarat

solar-diesel hybrid plant- Lakshadweep Bangaram island

Solar mission of India started in 2010

Shakti Sthala Solar Park Karnataka

International Solar Alliance initiative started by India and France on 30 Nov 2015 in Paris, Its headquarters in Gurugram

The first ISA summit was held - in 2018 in Delhi

Rank in energy efficiency index - 1. Karnataka, 2. Rajasthan, 3. Haryana, and 4. Maharashtra

Scheme- kisan urja Suraksha evam utthan Mahaabhiyan(KUSUM)

State-wise solar installed capacity

Karnataka 7355.17 MW

Rajasthan 5732.56mw

Tamil Nadu 4475.21mw

Gujarat 4430.82 mw

Andhra Pradesh 4203 mw

first solar canal plant 2012 Chandrasan Mehsana district in Guajrat

Wind energy

India stands in the fourth position in Wind energy production, having a total installed capacity of 42.63 Gigawatts.

Top states installed wind power capacity in India

  1. Tamil Nadu
  2. Gujarat
  3. Karnataka
  4. Maharashtra 
  5. andra pradesh
New Total 43,198.98
  1. Gujarat 10,415.82
  2. Tamil Nadu 10,124.52
  3. Karnataka 5,303.05
  4. Rajasthan 5,193.42
  5. Maharashtra 5,026.33
  6. Andhra Pradesh 4,096.65
  7. Madhya Pradesh 2,844.29

policies - National offshore wind energy policy 2015 for EEZ production target of 5GW

Wind solar hybrid policy

India has a potential of 695 gigawatt

Geothermal Energy

Potential - 10.60 Giga watt i.e. 10,600 megawatt

Geothermal plant set up in Manikaran Himachal Pradesh

Geothermal energy center - Puga valley in Laddakh

Tatapani in chattishgarh sarguja

The highest potential of geothermal 

Sutlej, Spiti, Beas,Parvati valley Himachal Pradesh

Badrinath Tapovan Uttrakhand

Surajkund Jammu Kashmir

OTEC Oceanic thermal energy conversion

Energy is produced by using temperature differences between deep cold ocean water and warm tropical surface water. The energy is absorbed by oceanic surfaces up to 1000m deep the sea,

the region were the temperature is 25 degrees c

Tidal; energy

It is a form of hydropower.

Highest potential in the Gulf of Khambat, kutch, and Sundarbans.

Kandla plant located in the Gulf of Kutch

Wave Energy

known as ocean wave energy

Renewable energy 

Ideal place - Trade wind belt of Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal

First oceanic wave power plant in India- Vizhinjan Kerala

Hydrogen Energy

It can be a substitute for liquid and gaseous fossil fuels

Hydrogen energy center at BHU in Varanasi for research and development

Hydrogen enriched CNG HCNG blending of CNG and Hydrogen


Source - Residues of Agriculture and forest

Garbage municipality

Installed capacity - 10.15 Gigawatt


  • Jhalkheri and Punjab Rice husk plant
  • Timarpur Delhi
  • Mumbai
  • Gasifier-based port Blair


The blending of ethanol and produced using Jatropha

Biofuel Generation 

  1. first - edible biomass from sugarbeet, sugar cane, wheat, and corn, 
  2. Second generation from wood, straw, and grass
  3. third - Algae and microalgae and macroalgae
  4. fourth generation capture and stored pyrolysis, solar to fuel, gasification

Polices - biofuels National Policy 2009

basic biofuel bioethanol and biodiesel

Advanced biofuels - 2nd bioethanol and municipality solid waste and 3rd generation bioethanol and bio cng

Mains content/notes energy resources

difference between Conventional and Non-Conventional sources of Energy

Aspect Conventional Energy Non-Conventional Energy
Source Derived from exhaustible resources like coal, oil, and natural gas. Derived from renewable resources like sunlight, wind, and water.
Availability Finite, limited availability. Generally abundant, continuously available.
Impact on Environment Often associated with pollution and environmental degradation. Generally cleaner with lower greenhouse gas emissions.
Technology Well-established technologies. Emerging and evolving technologies.
Cost Initial setup costs may be lower, but operational costs can be high. Initial setup costs may be higher, but operational costs tend to be lower.

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