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major crops of india production statewise

 India with its diverse agro climatic stands most significant in its agricultural activities in the world, the fertile soil, plains, abundant rainfall. Agriculture accounts 14 percent of indias gdp contribution and 58% of population depends on agriculture.

the major crops of India, exploring their significance, cultivation practices, economic impact, and the role they play in shaping the agricultural landscape of the country.

India's major crops produce

crop categories

Food grains - Rice, wheat, maize, millets, jowar, bajra, ragi, pulses- gram, tur,

Cash crops cotton, jute, sugarcane, Tobacco, oilseed, groundnut, linseed, sesamum, castor, seed, Rapeseed, and mustard.

Plantation crops Tea, coffee, spices pepper, cardamom, chilies,Turmeric, Ginger, coconut Arecanut, and Rupper

Horticulture Apple, peach, pear, Apricot, Almond, Strawberry, Walnut, Mango, Banana, citrus fruits, vegetables,


Gross cropped Area of major crops in India

Rice 22.30

Jowar 8.15

Bajra Maize, Ragi,

Wheat 16.17%

Barley

Other cereals and Millets

Coarse cereals 12.86%

Total cereals 51.33%

Total pulses 10.94%

Total food grains 62.67%

Total fruits 2.11%

Total vegetables 2.92%

Total oilseeds 14.33%

Total fibres 6.82

Leading Crop production state-wise

total crop production and distribution in states' ranking are

Total food crops- 1. Uttar Pradesh 2. Madhyapradesh 3.

Total pulses - M.p

Total oils 

Total cereals grains - Karnataka

Total spices - MP Rajasthan gujarat


Major crop of india production and characteristics

Rice is grown between 8 to 30 degrees north latitude and temperature 20 to 30 degree Celsius, Rainfall is 150cm for growing rice

India is the second largest producer after China, and the major states produce rice in India are West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, and Punjab

Wheat

2nd largest producer

Temperature 10 to 15 degrees in winter, and 21 to 26 degrees Celsius in summers 

Rainfall 50 to 75 cm.

Leading states in wheat production are 1. Uttar Pradesh(Western UP) 2. MP (Malva)3. Punjab


Maize 

Semi-arid climate Temperature requires 21 to 27 degrees

Queen of cereals Rain(50 to 100 cm), Kharif crop in Tamil Nadu it is Rabi crop.

Leading Producers are Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra.

India is the second-largest producer

Millets 

Coarse food grains Jowar Bajra Ragi are called millets

Warm weather, International Year of Millets 2023

Jowar is kharif in north India and Rabi crop in south India.

26 to 33 degrees Celsius temperature and rainfall 30 to 60 cm.

Leading producers of jowar Maharashtra, Karnataka, and rajasthan.

Bajra

Kharif crop, Bullrush millet grown in drier parts of the country. Dry and warm climate.

Rain is between 40 to 50 cm, and temperature is between 25 to 35 degree Celsius.

Leading producers of bajra are Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana.

Ragi 

Temperature 20 to 30 degrees celsius and Rainfall between 50 to 100 cm  annually,

Soil red, light black sandy loamy drained well.

Distribution Karnataka, Uttarakhand Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh.

Pulses 

Mostly leguminous vegetarian protein

Madhya Pradesh is the highest producer followed by Maharashtra and Rajasthan.

India is the largest producer in the world.

  • Gram 

Rabi crop, grows in Temperatures 20 to 25 degrees Celsius and Rainfall is 40 to 50 cm.

Producer states 1. Maharashtra, MP Rajasthan

  • Tur arhar

Kharif crops grown in mild winters

Leading producers Maharashtra, Karnataka up mp, and Gujarat.

oil seeds

largest producer of oilseed in the world is India, and cropped area in India is 14%,

Grown in diverse agroecological conditions, there are 9 oilseed crops 

7 edible - Groundnut, Rapeseed and Mustard, Soyabean, seasum, safflower,and Niger.

2 nonedible - Castor, and linseed.

leading producers are 1. Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat.

list of oilseeds production in states or regions

  • coconut - Kerala,
  • castor seed - Gujarat, 
  • linseed- Chattisgarh, 
  • Soybean- M.P and Maharashtra, 
  • Mustard and rapeseed- Rajasthan, M.P. and Haryana. 
  • Sunflower Karnataka, Haryana, and Orissa.
  • Groundnut - Gujarat

major oilseed

40 to 50 % oil 

climate - Tropical crop Temperature is 20 to 30 degrees C.

and Rainfall 50 to 75 cm.

Production in 1. Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Tamilnadu


  • Linseed 

35 to 47% oil.

used in manufacturing paints, printing ink and waterproof fabrics,

conditions cool and moist, Rainfall- 75 cm and Temperature - 20 celsius

India is 3rd largest producer,

producing states- M.P., UP, Chattisgarh, Maharashtra,


  • Castor seeds - 50 % oil used in lubricants, hair oil, and leather tanning.

conditions Tropical subtropical, leaves as feed for silkworm,

20 to 25 degrees Celsius, soil - Red, sandy loams, alluvial soils.

India 2nd after Brazil


  • Soyabean

Protein and food oil khrif crop

Temperature 134 to 24 degreee celsius, Rainfall - 40 to 60 cm. Needed 3 to 4 times irrigation grown in acidic loamy soil.

Producer states are MP Maharastra and Rajasthan in  survey 2023 Maharashtra as highest producer,

  • Rapeseed and Mustard

India is the largest producer

Type- Subtropical crop, Rabi crop 

cannot bear too much cold

Producer states - Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Haryana and UP


  • Sunflower 

Grown throughout year in 15 to 25 degreee celsius temperature, rainfall 50 cm

low temperature harmful 

producer states are Karnataka, Telanghana and Orissa


  • Sesamum

India is the largest producer in the world

Kharif crop in north India and rabi crop in south India

temperature 20 to 25 degrees Celsius Rainfall - 50 100 cm

producer states Gujarat Tamilnadu and West Bengal, Karnataka, and mp


Cash crops 


High commercial value grown for the purpose of earning profit


Sugarcane indigenous crop

used as a source of sugar, jaggery, and khandsari

conditions - 18 months to mature,

hot humid climate, and temperature - 21 to 27 degrees Celsius and rainfall - 75 to 100cm.

production India is the second largest producer after Brazil

sugarcane producer States - UP, MH, Karnataka, and sugar-producing states are Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh, and Karnataka

Sugarcane Research Institute is located in Tamil Nadu 1912

Cotton 

Fiber crop 

Grown in Tropical and subtropical areas

Temperature is 21 to 30 degrees Celsius and Rainfall is 50 to 100cm

India is 3rd largest producer of cotton and the major states producing cotton are 1. Gujarat, 2. Maharashtra, and 3.Telangana


Jute

Hot and Humid region Temperature - 20 to 40 degrees Celsius and Rainfall is 120 to 150 cm

contribution of major crops and mineral resources in India is highest in its economic wealth

conclusion 

The crops 

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