Green revolution in India and evergreen revolution

green revolution India and strategies for second green revolution in india for upsc ,mppsc civil services exam notes

Green revolution was started in world during 1960s at the time of food crisis, in most countries. mexico is the originator country of Green revolution, followed by India. Norman E. borloug scientist of America working in Mexico as director of wheat development program, research and developed new variety of dwarf wheat seeds like sonoro 64, lerma roza and tritical(wheat and mustard hybrid) these are high yielding and took less time to mature. Green revolution in India started in 1965 during lal bahadur shastri.

The word Green Revolution was first given by william Goud, in 1968 during a speech on 8 march 1968.


Green Revolution images

What is Green revolution

Green revolution refers revolution in the agriculture with increse in production of food grains with help of high yielding variety of seeds. for food grains like wheat, rice, Maize, jowar, and Bajra.

Green revolution increased the production and productivity of food grains like Wheat and Rice during that period.

Green revolution in India

Green revolution in India was started by M.S. Swaminathan, who was also working in mexican lab. Introduced these variety of seeds in India with his contribution he is known as father of green revolution in India. M.S. swaminathan known as gather of Green Revolution in India for his contribution in developing and introducing high yielding variety of seeds in India.

Revolution in agriculture related to increased production of food grains, especially wheat and Rice. started in 1960s and saw a relatable transformation in agriculture, Introduced new technologies in India in 1966. Green revolution in India started from punjab state.

components of green revolution

Introducing high yielding variety of seeds - jowar,bajra,maize, rice and wheat

irrigation facilities increased with dams, canals and ground water.

use of fertilizers

pesticides used in agriculture

modern machines

mandi system like apmc mandi started and msp were started in 1966

village transportation and road facilities developed

agriculture research institutes and universities opened

double cropping system started

kisan credit card scheme benefitted farmers

need of green revolution in India

now the question arise why india needed green revolution, there are certain reasons why india needs Green revolution

  • Rapid population Growth increased food demands
  • food crisis and famine
  • indo china war and indo pak war impact on indian economy
  • monsoon failure in 1965

Efforts of lal bahadur shastri and Subramanyam food minister who is political father of green revolution in india.

public law 480 scheme of America to export food grains at cheap prices was stopped. which incresed demand to start Green revolution in India.

objectives of Green revolution in India

there are certain positive and negative impacts of green revolution in India

positive impact of green revolution in India

the advantages of green revolution in india are

  • production increased and productivity also increased
  • food security
  • poverty alleviation
  • rural development
  • reduction in land conversion decreased rate of deforestation
  • industrial development and agriculture investment increased
  • import decreased of food grains
  • Technology advancement in agriculture use of modern equipments in agriculture
  • income and life standards

Negative impacts of Green revolution

there are certain disadvantages of Green revolution

  • Declining soil fertility
  • extinction of indegenous variety of crops
  • focused on rice and wheat only
  • polltuion - air water
  • depletion of Ground water level due to increse in water consmption
  • excessive use of chemicals
  • regional disparities increased
  • on human health - food consumption patterns, effects health
  • debt increased small and marginalised farmers
  •  Food Consumption Pattern - Traditionally, Indians consumed a lot of millets, but this became mostly fodder after the green revolution.

factual information about Green revolution

norman e. borloug father of green revolution was born in america on 25 march 1914 and he won novel prize.

International maize and wheat improvement centre formed in 1971 located in El Batan, Mexico.

world food prize was started by Norman Borloug in 1986. and first awarded to india M.S. Swaminathan in 1987, belongs to Tamil Nadu state.

first state elected for Green revolution in india was punjab.

Evergreen Revolution or second Green revolution

Second Green Revolution also known as Evergreen revolution, is a major change to put forward new techniques and increase productivity and maintain sustainability in Agriculture, without causing environmental and social harm. It is the strategy to maintain environment and Agriculture simultaneously with effective approach.

M.S. Swaminathan was the originator of this revolution term. It focuses all other crops and focusing on all states and regions of india.

features of evergreen revolution second green revolution

  • precission agriculture
  • sustainabilty in agriculture
  • organic farming to drop food poisoning
  • Use of new technologie in agriculture and genetic engineering
  • multiple cropping pattern

Strategies for second green revolution

 Indian government launched several mission and programs for evergreen sustainable second green revolution.

 Rainbow revolution 

launched for taking all other revolution integrated and promote enviroment sustainabilty.

Rashtriya krishi vikas yojna

launched in 2007, is a centrally sponsored scheme.  umbrella scheme to cover all other schemes like BGREI

Bringing Green revoltion to Eastern india BGREI

A sub scheme of rashtriya krishi vikas yojna launched in 2010, to increase production and productivity in eastern indian states.

For improvement productivity Focusing seven states - assam, bihar, orissa, jharkhand, eastern uttar pradesh, and west bengal.

soil health card scheme

launched on 19 fabruary 2015 from Rajasthan for soil health card to farmers for 3 years

national mission for sustainable agriculture

pradhan mantri krishi sichai yojna

launched in 2015

pradhan mantri fasal bima yojna

launched in 2016, for providing premium to farmers

National Horticulture Mission

centrally sponsored scheme launched in 2005-06. The objective of this scheme is to enhance and provide holistic growth of horticulture sector in India.

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