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Pre Historic India Notes UPSC, MPPSC

Indian history is divided into three parts ancient medieval and modern history
But the history before ancient India is known as pre historic era. UPSC, MPPSC Notes of pre historic India.
The pre historic age in India follows different cultural aspects as given. 

Pre Historic Cultures in India


The history of human settlements in India dates back to prehistoric times that are marked by the stone age, bronze age and iron age.
There are no return or decipheral records available for this period of history hands it is known as prehistoric period the available knowledge is based on some archaeological evidence like pottery artifacts stone tools and metals implements used by historic period that are found from many places.

Pre historic period of India can be divided into following parts

1. Paleolithic (Old stone age)

2.5million to 8000 BC
Paleo means old lethic means stone it was developed in Pleistocene period.

Features of paleolithic 

Use of fire bus started during this time
Use of land of bridges was founded during this period.
Tools used such as axe, cleavers, scrappers made out of bones and stones.

Habitation and occupation
  • They are Hunters and gatherers.
  • Nomadic people no settled life no knowledge of agriculture 
  • Found shelter in Caves 
  • Cave paintings are found from these times there are about 800 rock shelters in bhimbetka (Madhya Pradesh).

Important sites
  • Belan valley (Uttar Pradesh)
  • sohan valley present Pakistan 
  • Punjab, Kashmir, Rajasthan, Narmada Valley 
  • world sites- Africa

Paleolithic age in Indian divided into

A. Lower pareolithic (2,50,000 - 1,00,000 BC)

B. middle paleolithic (1,00,000 BC. - 40,000 BC)

C. upper paleolithic (40,000 - 10,000 BC)

2. Mesolithic

Time period is 9000 BC to 4000  BC

Features of Mesolithic

  • Climate became warm and dry
  • Humain beings moved to New areas
  • People lived on hunting gathering fishing and food gathering.
  • Tools used were microliths (small tools) i.e. blades, scrapers made of stone.

Important sites were 

  • bagaur (RJ)
  • Bhimbetka and Adamgarh (mp) evidence of domestication found.
  • Langhanj (Gujarat) Evidence of burial of dead.
  • Tinnevelley in Tamilnadu 
  • Birbhanpur in west bengal
  • Sarai Nahar Rai in UP.

3. Neolithic 

7000 to 2500 BC
Characteristic of Neolithic culture
  • Practice of Agriculture
  • Domestication of animals
  • Grinding and polishing of stone tools.
  • The manufacture of pottery
Primitive communism, pit dwelling houses, evidences of dog circular husts made of bamboo, hand made pottery, serpent cult.

Tools used in Neolithic 
More skillfully made varied in form.
Tools used during Neolithic age were polished axe, adze, chisel, Ring stone, saddlequern, Miller's etc.
Burins, saws, and chisels were found.

Habitation and occupation
Systematic agriculture and use of pottery started. Slash and burn system were used, horse gram and Ragi were cultivated.
Domestication of cattle, sheep and goats.

4. Chalcolithic

2100 to 700 BC

Features

Use of copper and stone tools was found.
The Tools used were made of stone and copper.

Painted black pottery as well as Red ware.
Ocre Coloured potteries were also found.
Habitation - mainly involved in farming activities.
Important sites of chalcolithic
The settlements related to chalcolithic were found in South eastern Rajasthan, the western part of MP, western Maharashtra, south eastern India.
Gilund and Ahar found in South Eastern Rajasthan located near Banas Valley.The ahar culture Existed between c. 2100 and 1500 BC.
In western MP kaytha and Eran have been excavated. where malva culture found in Navdatoli, Eran and Nagda between 1700 and 1200.
Jorwe Nevasa,daimabad in Ahmadnagar district Chandoli, Songaon and Inamgaon in Pune district. They all related to Jorwe culture named after Jorwe site situated on left bank of pravara river tributary of Godawari. 
Jorwe culture Existed between 1400 to 700 BC covered Maharashtra.
Dhulia (Maharashtra)
Narmada valley (Gujarat)
Chambal valley
The Indus valley civilization and vedic civilization existed and founded evidences of these civilizations.

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